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Eutrophication & Hypoxia Map Data Set

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2
Sand-mining dock-South Barbuda
Antigua & Barbuda
17.11667
-61.7
1990
Seasonal
Antigua and Barbuda is a twin-island nation located between the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. Coral reefs near the sand-mining dock in South Barbuda have been found to be 90 percent covered in algae as a result of high nutrient levels, and most of the reef has died as a result. Very few people inhabit this area, so the exact source of the high nutrient levels is unknown, but likely causes throughout Antigua and Barbuda include inadequate septic systems, runoff from animal operations, and boat discharge. The dock was first observed to be eutrophic in 1990.
Goreau & Goreau, 1996; Bernal et al. 2004
Eutrophic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
13
Huon Estuary
Australia-Tasmania
-43.26667
147.11667
1990
Seasonal
The Huon Estuary is within the Huon Estuary Marine Conservation Area in southeast Tasmania and has great ecological importance. Overall, water quality is considered good, but harmful algal blooms have been observed during the summer and fall months likely due to nutrients from salmon and shellfish farms. The estuary has a tendency to experience short-lived, localized episodes of anoxia likely exacerbated by excess nutrients.
OzCoasts; Thompson et al. 2008
Hypoxic
No
#N/A
#N/A
15
Moore River Estuary
Australia-Western Australia
-31.351744
115.500914
2000
Seasonal
The Moore River Estuary in Western Australia is a pristine environment attracting many tourists each year. One of the Moore River's tributaries, in particular, receives high nutrient loads from its agricultural intensive watershed. Nutrient loads are very high in stormwater and groundwater flows. Algal blooms occur, but are generally not harmful. However, the occasional blue-green algae blooms in the estuary may increase in the future. The Estuary is under threat to development on the south side.
Brearley 2005
Eutrophic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
18
Peel-Harvey Estuary
Australia-Western Australia
-32.603767
115.717086
1970
Seasonal
Fish kills
The Peel-Harvey Estuary is a single estuarine system including the Harvey Estuary and Peel Inlet in Western Australia. High nutrient loads in the Peel-Harvey estuary are mainly the result of nutrient runoff from agricultural land and swine operations. Algal blooms and fish kills were prevalent in the 1970s and 1980s as a result of nutrient pollution. For a time, over 20,000 tones of algae were harvested off of the beaches each year. Stratification is an important factor in the formation of hypoxia. Mixing has improved conditions with the opening of the Dawesville Channel which regularly flushes the estuary using tidal flow. However, many worry that the improvements are only a temporary fix as high nutrient loading continues. Due to influx of water from the channel, algal blooms are now occurring less in the Bay, but are still prevalent upriver.
Hodgkin & Hamilton, 1993; Hearn & Robson, 2001; Brearley, 2005; Chuwen et al. 2009
Hypoxic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
20
Pumicestone Passage
Australia-Queensland
-27.076
153.151
1990
Pumicestone Passage is a narrow channel of water between Birbie Island and mainland Queensland. It is a protected marine park and haven for birds. Deception Bay contributes nutrients and sediment to Pumicestone Passage which also receives nutrient loading from agriculture in the catchment basin. Microalgal blooms have been observed along with macroalgal (seaweed) blooms.
Eyre & France 1997
Eutrophic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
23
Swan-Canning Estuary (Including Crawley and Matilda Bay)
Australia-Western Australia
-32.009278
115.816686
1950
Seasonal
Fish kills
The Swan/Avon River drains a large catchment area (121,000 square kilometers) and flows to the ocean through the city of Perth. The type of soil (sandy), land clearance, and Mediterranean climate of the region is considered to contribute to the eutrophic process. Most of the catchment area has been cleared of vegetation since European colonization in the 1800s and transformed into agricultural land with shallow-rooted/seasonal crops leading to an increase in surface runoff. Increase in urban development/population is also considered to be a leading cause of nutrient inputs into the estuary. Naturally low nutrient levels in soils in this area have resulted in applications of superphosphate. High levels of phosphorus leaching from to these applications are responsible for regular phytoplankton blooms in the Swan-Canning Estuary. Phosphorus concentrations have doubled or tripled since the 1940s. Low oxygen is related to seasonal rainfall and runoff that increases nutrient loads from developed land. A major harmful algal bloom was reported in the year 2000.
Donohue et al. 2001; Hamilton & Turner 2001; Brearley 2005; Davies & Koop 2006
Hypoxic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
25
Tuggerah Lake
Australia-New South Wales
-33.306603
151.495942
1980
Unknown
Tuggerah Lake is a large, coastal saltwater lake in New South Wales. Harmful algal blooms have been observed here, and there is occasional short-lived low dissolved oxygen in bottom waters. A power plant discharging into the lake may cause thermal problems that lead to stratification and also contributes nutrients to the lake. Another likely factor is the increasingly urbanized drainage basin that contributes nutrients.
King, 1988
Hypoxic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
33
Dee Why Lagoon
Australia-New South Wales
-33.7479
151.296314
2000
The Dee Why Lagoon is within a 77 hectare wildlife refuge along the New South Wales coast near Curl Curl and Manly Lagoons. The catchment basin is largely urban, contributing nutrient loads to the lagoon which are likely the cause of harmful algal blooms that have been observed in the lagoon.
OzCoasts
Eutrophic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
50
Barbados
Barbados
13.08333
-59.61667
2000
Barbados is an island in the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean Sea. Its waters suffer from eutrophication due to fecal matter in the water and contamination from solid waste which has affected the health of the coral reefs in the area.
Bernal et al. 2004
Eutrophic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
51
Belgian Shelf north of Ostend
Belgium
51.333
3
2000
Unknown
Reduced nematode biodiversity
The Belgian Shelf of the Atlantic Ocean, north of Ostend (Oostende), is an oxygen-stressed area. Benthic diversity has been severely reduced--only one nematode species that is well adapted to the impoverished sediment quality has been found in this portion of the shelf.
Vanaverbeke et al. 2003
Eutrophic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
56
Emboassica Lagoon
Brazil
-22.4124
-41.8228
1990
Seasonal
Mass mortality
Emboassica Lagoon (also spelled Imbossica) is an urban, coastal lagoon in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Sewage discharge into the Emboassica Lagoon has lead to eutrophication, dystrophic crisis, and anoxia. Hypoxia has been observed here since the 1990s due to sewage discharge.
Kozlowsky-Suzuki & Bozelli 2002
Hypoxic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
60
Vitoria Bay
Brazil
-20.254
-40.327
1990
Seasonal
Abundance, species richness and diversity reduced
Vitoria Bay in the Espirito Santo state of southeastern Brazil suffers from low dissolved oxygen, primarily as a result of high organic loading from municipal and industrial wastewater discharge from the roughly one million residents in Vitoria and surrounding cities.
Nalesso et al. 2005
Hypoxic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
61
Barra lagoon
Brazil-Rio De Janeiro
-22.9521
-42.7723
1990
fish kills
Barra lagoon is a part of a series of lagoons in the state of Rio de Janeiro in southeastern Brazil that have been polluted by nutrient runoff from agricultural, industrial, and domestic sources. Cyanobacteria blooms have been problematic in the Barra Lagoon and have led to fish kills.
Marques et al. 2004
Eutrophic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
63
Saquarema lagoon
Brazil-Rio De Janeiro
-22.91667
-42.55
1990
The Saquarema lagoon is a part of a series of lagoons in the state of Rio de Janeiro in southeastern Brazil that have been polluted by nutrient runoff from agricultural, industrial, and domestic sources.
Marques et al. 2004
Eutrophic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
65
Cananeia Lagoon
Brazil-Sao Paulo
-25.06667
-47.9
1990
The Cananeia Lagoon is in southern Sao Paulo in southeastern Brazil. It is eutrophic as a result of nutrient discharge from untreated domestic and industrial sewage into its waters.
Marques et al. 2004
Eutrophic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
72
Tracadie & Winter Bays
Canada
46.39
-62.99
2000
Seasonal
Tracadie and Winter Bays are located on Prince Edward Island. Extensive fish farming occurs in the area and is related to hypoxic events in the bays.
Miron et al. 2005
Hypoxic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
75
Port Valparaiso
Chile
-33.025
-71.61667
2000
Port Valparaiso is one of Chile's most important seaports, located in central Chile. Nutrients from agricultural runoff and industrial discharge from fish canneries have led to eutrophication.
Permanent Commission for the South Pacific (CPPS) 2005
Eutrophic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
76
Bohai Sea
China
38.88333
118.41667
2000
Bohai Sea is the innermost waters of the Yellow Sea in northeastern China. Due to the heavily urbanized coastal region and its proximity to Beijing, it is one of the busiest seaways in the world. Severe eutrophication has resulted in red tides and fish kills at the sea bottom (benthic zone). The main sources of nutrients that have led to eutrophication include agricultural runoff, sewage discharges, and industrial pollution.
Teng et al. 2005
Eutrophic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
77
East China Sea Changjiang (Yangtze) River
China
31
124
1950
Seasonal
The East China Sea off the east coast of China flows into the Yellow Sea to the north and extends to Taiwan in the south. The Changjiang (Yangtze) River is the largest river discharging into the sea. Seasonal hypoxia has been observed since the 1950s over an area of 15,000 square kilometers as a result of nutrients discharged from the Yangtze River.
Daoji et al. 2002; Li & Daler 2004; Wang 2006; Chen et al. 2007
Hypoxic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
81
Tolo Harbor
China
22.445469
114.193528
1980
Seasonal
Mass mortality
Mass mortality
The Tolo Harbor is located in the northeast New Territories of Hong Kong. It is almost entirely enclosed, with only a narrow opening to the open sea through Mirs Bay in the Eastern Waters. Sources of nutrient pollution include sewage, agriculture, and industry. Frequent red tide events in the harbour have resulted in hypoxic conditions at the sea bottom and mass mortality of fish and shellfish. Fauna recover rapidly each winter over the course of several months to one year. Seasonal hypoxia has been observed since the 1980s. Stratification and poor water circulation contribute to hypoxic conditions.
Wu 1982
Hypoxic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
82
Yellow Sea
China
35.595347
122.982894
2000
The Yellow Sea is the northern part of the East China Sea, located between mainland China and the Korean peninsula. Much of the dissolved organic nitrogen in the Yellow Sea comes from atmospheric deposition. Other sources include runoff from the increasingly urbanized coastal areas and agricultural loadings from fertilizers and manure. The sea also receives the Changjiang (Yangtze) Bay plume.
Lin et al. 2005
Eutrophic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
83
Xiamen Bay
China
24.39083
118.24333
1990
Xiamen Bay is a commercial bay in southeastern China. The western coastline of Xiamen Bay alone has 20 sewage outfalls into the bay. Urban runoff also contributes nutrient loads, but benthic release has been identified as the main contributor to dissolved organic phosphorus. Harmful algal blooms have been observed.
Wu et al. 1992; Hong et al. 1999
Eutrophic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
84
Cartagena Bay
Colombia
10.31417
-75.54806
2000
Cartagena Bay lies to the north of the city of Cartagena, Colombia. The bay has two entrances: Bocachica (Small Mouth) in the south, and Bocagrande (Big Mouth) in the north. Eutrophication is the result of nutrient pollution from untreated sewage, industrial discharge, and agricultural runoff. Eutrophic conditions combined with stratification have resulted in hypoxia and massive fish kills. The Bay receives 60 percent of Cartagena's domestic wastewater. Its surface waters are hypoxic and bottom waters are anoxic.
Lonin & Tuchkovenko 2001; Isaza et al. 2006
Hypoxic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
87
Golfo Dulce
Costa Rica
8.615
-83.318
1990
Unknown
Golfo Dulce (Gulf of Dulce) is a fjord-like inlet on Costa Rica's Pacific coast. The Gulf has naturally low oxygen due to a shallow sill separating it from the Pacific Ocean. Upland erosion from deforestation as well as nutrient pollution from agricultural runoff, municipal wastewater, and industrial discharges, are degrading coastal water quality and contributing to eutrophication in the gulf.
León-Morales & Vargas 1998
Hypoxic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
88
Gulf of Nicoya
Costa Rica
9.78333
-84.8
1990
The Gulf of Nicoya lies on Costa Rica's Pacific coast. In the rainy season, the Gulf is strongly stratified due to high freshwater loads from the rivers. As a result of stratification and eutrophic conditions, the water suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels. In the dry season, only the deep waters experience low dissolved oxygen levels. The Gulf receives nutrient loads from agriculture and municipal and industrial discharge. Unusual phytoplankton blooms have been observed.
Kress et al. 2002
Eutrophic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
89
Ébrié lagoon
Côte d'Ivoire
5.221
-4.7
1980
Unknown
Fish kills, loss of biodiversity, trophic structure
The Ébrié Lagoon lies in Côte d'Ivoire, separated for most of its length from the Atlantic Ocean by a narrow coastal strip. The lagoon receives riverine inputs from the Comoë River. Abidjan and towns such as Grand Bassam, Bingerville, Jacqueville, and Tiagba lie on the lagoon. Domestic and industrial waste from the lagoon's coastal population are polluting the lagoon. Hypoxia has been observed since the 1980s. Eutrophication has resulted in fish kills, loss of biodiversity, and changes in the trophic structure.
Ukwe et al. 2006
Hypoxic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
91
Als Fjord
Denmark
55.028049
9.632616
1920
Seasonal
Als Fjord and Als Strait lie to the west of Als Island. Als Island is a Danish island that lies off the Jutland peninsula. The island is home to a thriving swine industry. Seasonal hypoxia has been observed since the 1920s over an area of 40 square kilometers. Increasing nutrient loadings were observed from the 1960s to 1970s. While Denmark has met targets for reducing point source nitrogen and phosphorus loads from wastewater treatment plants, diffuse runoff from agriculture remains the primary source of nutrients to Danish coastal waters. There is a large year to year variation due to weather.
Gerlach 1990
Hypoxic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
93
Belt Sea
Denmark
55.5
11
1970
Seasonal
benthic mortality
fish kills
The Belt Sea region is located between Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. Eutrophication in the sea has drastically increased; since the 1950s, nitrogen loading increased as much as 4-fold and about 8-fold for total phosphorus. Seasonal hypoxia has been observed since the 1970s over an area of 2,150 square kilometers. The Kattegat and Belt Seas experienced fish kills and benthic die-offs in the spring of 1988 and 1992. While Denmark has met targets for reducing point source nitrogen and phosphorus loads from wastewater treatment plants, diffuse runoff from agriculture remains the primary source of nutrients to Danish coastal waters.
Karlson et al. 2002; Ærtebjerg et al. 2003
Hypoxic
Yes
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GD5I0YlpPW8
GD5I0YlpPW8
95
Flensborg Fjord
Denmark
54.831
9.788
1980
Seasonal
Although potentially affecting extinction, seasonal hypoxia does not seem to affect species richness negatively.
Eutrophication is of particular importance in Danish estuaries and is a causal factor in the development of hypoxia. The Flensborg Fjord is an inlet of the Baltic Sea that separates Denmark and Germany. The fjord receives high nutrient loads from riverine inputs as well as from wastewater treatment plants that discharge into the area. Seasonal hypoxia has been observed since the 1980s.
Josefson & Hansen 2004; Vinther et al. 2008
Hypoxic
Yes
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GD5I0YlpPW8
GD5I0YlpPW8
102
Mariager Fjord
Denmark
56.654
9.95
1990
Seasonal
mortality
fish kills
Mariager Fjord lies on the northeast coast of Denmark and opens to the Kattegat. Seasonal hypoxia has been observed here since the 1990s over an area of 20 square kilometers. The bottom waters are always anoxic but for two weeks in 1997, the anoxia reached the surface. The primary contributor to the eutrophication is agricultural runoff. Other sources include fish farms and wastewater treatment plants, although improvements are being made.
Fallesen et al. 2000; Josefson and Hansen 2004
Hypoxic
Yes
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GD5I0YlpPW8
GD5I0YlpPW8
104
Nivå Bugt
Denmark
56.016
12.623
1980
Seasonal
Although potentially affecting extinction, seasonal hypoxia does not seem to affect species richness negatively.
Eutrophication is of particular importance in Danish estuaries and is a causal factor in development of hypoxia. Nivå Bugt is a bay located on the Zealand coast of the Øresund (a sound separating the Danish island of Zealand from the southern Swedish province of Scania). Seasonal hypoxia has been observed since the 1980s.
Josefson & Hansen 2004
Hypoxic
No
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GD5I0YlpPW8
GD5I0YlpPW8
106
Odense Fjord Outer Basin
Denmark
55.506
10.554
1980
Seasonal
Although potentially affecting extinction, seasonal hypoxia does not seem to affect species richness negatively.
Eutrophication is particularly important in Danish estuaries because it is a causal factor in the development of hypoxia. The Odense Fjord is located on the Danish island of Funen. The Odense Fjord is shallow but receives nutrient inputs from a very large catchment area that is 80 percent agricultural. Seasonal hypoxia has been observed since the 1980s. Restoration practices have been in place since the mid-1980s and have helped to reduce the nitrogen and phosphorus loads by a third and six fold, respectively.
Josefson & Hansen 2004; Riisgard et al. 2008
Hypoxic
Yes
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GD5I0YlpPW8
GD5I0YlpPW8
107
Ringgård Basin
Denmark
55.027
10.438
1980
Seasonal
Although potentially affecting extinction, seasonal hypoxia does not seem to affect species richness negatively.
Eutrophication is particularly important in Danish estuaries because it is a causal factor in the development of hypoxia. Ringgård Basin is a depression in the Little Belt sea of Denmark. As much as 25 percent of oxygen measurements indicate hypoxic conditions.
Ærtebjerg et al. 2003; Josefson & Hansen 2004
Hypoxic
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GD5I0YlpPW8
GD5I0YlpPW8
108
Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark
56.047
8.213
1980
Seasonal
Although potentially affecting extinction, seasonal hypoxia does not seem to affect species richness negatively. Oxygen depletion probably responsible for 50 percent of soft-shell clam depletion between 1999 and 2000.
Eutrophication probably to blame for dead fish found in fishing nets.
Eutrophication is particularly important in Danish estuaries because it is a causal factor in the development of hypoxia. The Ringkøbing Fjord is a shallow, artificial estuary that has been suffering from eutrophication due to increased urban and rural runoff. A river feeding into the fjord was channeled in the 1960s to provide faster runoff from agricultural areas. There is significant, reoccurring oxygen depletion during autumn and phytoplankton blooms in the summer months. Oxygen depletion is the likely cause of a 50 percent decline in soft-shell clams between 1999 and 2000.
Josefson & Hansen 2004; Nielsen et al. 2005
Hypoxic
Yes
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GD5I0YlpPW8
GD5I0YlpPW8
111
Skive Fjord
Denmark
56.617
9.083
1990
Seasonal
Mass kills of benthic organisms during anoxic events.
Eutrophication is particularly important in Danish estuaries because it is a causal factor in the development of hypoxia. The Skive Fjord is in the northwestern part of Jutland and empties into the Limfjord. Every summer, the Skive Fjord suffers from anoxic conditions in the bottom waters, resulting in anoxic sediments releasing nutrients which then trigger phytoplankton blooms. Moon jellyfish, which are tolerant of low oxygen levels, take over the area and feed on the zooplankton which would otherwise feed on the phytoplankton blooms, thus reinforcing the hypoxic conditions. Efforts have been made since the 1980s to reduce nutrient loads but hypoxia is still present every summer.
Conley et al. 2007; Josefson & Hansen, 2004; Moller et al. 2007
Hypoxic
No
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GD5I0YlpPW8
GD5I0YlpPW8
112
Vejle Fjord
Denmark
55.702
9.676
1980
Seasonal
Although potentially affecting extinction, seasonal hypoxia does not seem to affect species richness negatively.
Eutrophication is particular importance in Danish estuaries and is a causal factor in the development of hypoxia. Vejle Fjord is located between Vejle and Juelsminde off the southeastern coast of the Jutland peninsula. The Vejle Fjord watershed is primarily agricultural, with much of the nutrient loading coming from livestock manure. Denmark has implemented a nutrient tax in an attempt to reduce nitrogen loadings to the fjord.
Skop & Sorenson, 1998; Josefson & Hansen, 2004
Hypoxic
Yes
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GD5I0YlpPW8
GD5I0YlpPW8
114
Alexandria Harbour
Egypt
31.16833
29.85778
1980
Seasonal
Alexandria Harbour is located in Alexandria, the second-largest city of Egypt, on the northeast coast. Seasonal hypoxia has been observed since the 1980s due to many stressors, including maritime activities, agriculture, stored fertilizers, and domestic and industrial waste.
Dorgham et al. 2004
Hypoxic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
117
Manzalah Lake
Egypt
31.1828
32.0709
2000
Seasonal
in decline
Lake Manzalah (also Manzaleh) is a brackish lagoon in northeastern Egypt on the Nile Delta near Port Said. It is the largest of the northern deltaic lakes of Egypt. The area has become hypereutrophic at times and experiences harmful algal blooms. Major sources of nutrient pollution include sewage, agricultural runoff, and industrial discharges. Manzalah receives some sewage from Cairo. Local fisheries are in decline.
Ahmed et al. 2006; Oczkowski & Nixon, 2008
Eutrophic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
119
Jiquilisco Bay (Puerto El Triunfo)
El Salvador
13.23333
-88.55
2000
Jiquilisco Bay, off the southern coast of El Salvador, receives large loads of nutrients from agricultural runoff and untreated sewage. Fertilizer use in this area is significant, and deforestation exacerbates runoff. Harmful algal blooms have been observed as a result of eutrophication.
Permanent Commission for the South Pacific (CPPS) 2005
Eutrophic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
120
Widemouth (Bude) Bay
UK-England
50.790336
-4.562671
1990
Episodic
Mortality
Die-off of Nuccella lapillus and Cenebra erinacea
Widemouth Bay (Bude Bay) is located on the Atlantic coast near Cornwall, England, near the town of Bude. The bay is in the vicinity of a sewage outfall and has experienced episodic hypoxia since at least the 1990s. Two types of mollusks have experienced die-offs here: the dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus) and the oyster drill (Ocenebra erinacea). An estimated area of 12 square kilometers has been affected.
Gibbs et al. 1999
Hypoxic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
123
Holes Bay
UK-England
50.73333
-2
2000
Unknown
Holes Bay, in Poole Harbour in Dorset, has limited circulation and has suffered from nutrient pollution for decades. Improvements in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment have been made, but nonpoint source runoff remains a concern.
Wardlaw, 2005
Hypoxic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
124
Humber estuary
UK-England
53.667
-0.199
1980
Unknown
Adverse effects on fish migrations.
The Humber Estuary has the largest watershed of all the British Isles with a catchment area that includes one fifth of England. It is located off the east coast of northern England. As a result, the estuary has received municipal and industrial waste discharge from many major cities, as well as nutrient runoff from intensive agriculture, for decades. Hypoxic conditions are related to eutrophication has been observed since the 1980s.
Uncles et al. 1998; 2000
Hypoxic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
126
Lindisfarne NNR Area
UK-England
55.68333
-1.78333
1990
Lindisfarne is located on the Northumberland coast of northeast England. There is a Lindisfarne National Nature Reserve that provides important habitat for bird populations. Nutrient runoff from surrounding agricultural areas has led to an increase in macroalgae (seaweed) which covers more than 20 percent of the intertidal area, inhibiting the growth of seagrass beds which provide food for the birds.
English Nature 1998; OSPAR, 2003
Eutrophic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
128
North Sea
UK-England
58.25
11.45
1990
Unknown
The North Sea connects to the Atlantic Ocean by the English Channel in the south and Norwegian Sea in the north. Drainage from Norway, Denmark, Germany, England, Scotland, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France affects the North Sea. Hypoxia has been observed in the past decade. There are marginal areas of eutrophication in the North Sea, creating anoxic sea beds. Algal blooms have led to cases of shellfish poisoning. The European countries surrounding the North Sea have been working together for the past few decades to reduce pollution to the Sea.
Ducrotoy et al. 2000; Ducrotoy & Elliott, 2008
Hypoxic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
131
Thames estuary
UK-England
51.501
0.079
1920
Improved
Oxygen was a limiting factor from 1900-1950, now it is not.
The Thames estuary is where the Thames River meets the North Sea in eastern England. Seasonal hypoxia has been observed since the 1920s. The situation deteriorated from 1930 to 1970, and then began to improve due to nutrient management in the watershed. Riverine inputs from the River Thames are the primary source of nutrients to the estuary. In turn, the River Thames is impaired by sewage treatment plant discharges to its surface waters; it is estimated that sewage discharges make up a quarter of the nitrogen load to the estuary. There is typically a spring phytoplankton bloom in the Thames River plume.
Wheeler 1969; Andrews & Rickard 1980; Araujo et al. 1999; Weston et al. 2008
Improved
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
132
River Truro, Tresillian, and Fal Estuaries
UK-England
50.17028
-5.02972
2000
The River Truro, in Cornwall, England flows into the Fal River. A combination of nutrient pollution from agricultural runoff and municipal wastewater discharges has led to eutrophication in the river with the presence of algal blooms. The Fal Estuary is England's largest estuary and is important for maritime trade, tourism and conservation in terms of landscape, habitats and species. The estuary extends from its entrance between Pendennis Point and St. Anthony Head, 18 kilometers inland to its northernmost tidal limit at Tresillian, with a total shoreline length of 127 kilometers. The port of Falmouth lies at the mouth of the Fal estuary and is the principal port of Cornwall. The EU's Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive has classified the Fal Estuary as a sensitive, eutrophic area. The estuary experiences harmful algal blooms and has experienced outbreaks of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) which led to prohibitions against shellfish gathering in 1995 and 1996. Nutrient inputs to the estuary primarily originate from nonpoint sources such as agriculture. However, the Newham sewage treatment plant, which discharges directly into the upper reaches of the estuary, is also a significant source.
Maier et al. 2009
Eutrophic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
133
Ythan Estuary
UK-Scotland
57.317022
-1.989052
1990
Unknown
The Ythan Estuary lies in a predominantly agricultural watershed in northeast Scotland and was classified as a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone in 2000. Surface nitrate concentrations have tripled since the 1960s, about 60 percent of which was estimated to have come from increased fertilizer applications.
Raffaelli, 1999; Edwards et al. 2003; OSPAR, 2003
Hypoxic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A
134
Gulf of Riga
Estonia, Latvia
57.6256
23.5847
1980
Episodic
The Gulf of Riga, or Bay of Riga, is part of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia. It has been deemed one of the most polluted areas of the Baltic Sea. Signs of decline were visible from the 1950s, as the Gulf's watershed underwent significant industrialization, urbanization, and began applying more fertilizer to agricultural land in the region's post-war era. However, an economic recession in the 1990s reduced nutrient loads by half between 1987 and 1993. Efforts are being made to upgrade sewage treatment plants which should particularly help to reduce the phosphorus load. Episodic hypoxia has been observed in the Gulf since the 1980s, and cyanobacteria blooms have been observed in the 1990s.
Laznik et al. 1999; Karlson et al. 2002; Ojaveera & Andrushaitis, 2004
Hypoxic
Yes
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GD5I0YlpPW8
GD5I0YlpPW8
135
Åland Archipelago Sea
Finland
60.289154
21.993434
1990
seasonal
Mortality with reduced benthos
Reduced abundance, biomass, diversity under algae mats
The Åland Archipelago is located at the mouth of Bothnia Bay in the Baltic Sea. The region supports a fish farming industry which is responsible for one third of the nitrogen load and over half of the phosphorus load. Seasonal hypoxia has been observed since 1990 over an area of 70 square kilometers. Algae has increased in this area since the early 1990s, resulting in reduced abundance and diversity of fish life underneath algal mats. Mortality has also occurred at the sea bottom. Storms play a part in increasing freshwater and nutrient levels in the sounds.
Norkko & Bonsdorff, 1996; Karlson et al. 2002; Nordvarg & Johansson, 2002
Hypoxic
Yes
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I9ly7JaWtRg
I9ly7JaWtRg
146
Bay of Morlaix
France
48.654292
-3.877254
1980
The Bay of Morlaix is located on the Brittany coast of France. Green tides are common along the Brittany Coast of France and have been here since the 1970s. Causes of eutrophication and green tides on the Brittany coast are mainly agricultural runoff, atmospheric deposition, and fish farms.
Charlier et al. 2007
Eutrophic
Yes
#N/A
#N/A

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